Daily stress and constant processing can be a cause and a catalyst for many mental disorders. Psychologists have identified the most common of them.
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
CFS suffers every twentieth working person.
Symptoms The need for solitude, a feeling of depression and hopelessness, unreasonable fatigue, sleep disturbance, apathy, loss of memory and muscle weakness.
The reasons. Most professionals tend to see the source of CFS under constant stress. Office workers are primarily at risk, as a sedentary lifestyle is one of the main factors provoking the emergence of CFS. Chronic fatigue syndrome often occurs in people who are terribly afraid of losing their place and who cannot rest. Such people mistakenly believe that if you work hard, they will be appreciated in some way, but this is far from the case.
Happening. “Having worked for a year as an ordinary bank employee, I began to feel overworked, although I wouldn’t say that I was processing a lot. “I felt as if I had been tormented every day with grueling physical exertion,” says financier Sergey. – At some point I decided that I should spend more time sleeping, and began to sleep 10–11 hours a day. Fatigue only worsened. I returned to normal only during the summer holidays, when friends forcefully pulled me on a hike. I thought that the forest air had helped, but it turns out that the whole thing is in motion. ”
Most affected. Office workers.
This is the most common mental illness that affects 10% of the world’s population over the age of 40. Of these, 2/3 are women. In many cases, a person suffering from depression, begins to abuse alcohol and other mind-altering drugs, goes head to head.
Symptoms Constantly bad mood, loss of the ability to experience joy, inhibition, apathy, disturbed sleep and thinking, weight change.
Myths. A wide range of people, as a rule, have a false idea of depression. Many tend to call depression a prolonged bad mood or experiences associated with loss or failure. In fact, this is a clinical disease, and only a doctor can make a diagnosis, and it is impossible to recover from it.
It is also widely believed that depression is a disease of creative people. History really knows many examples of depressed creators, ranging from Mozart and Van Gogh to Kurt Cobain. In fact, depression is not at all the privilege of the Bohemians, which is proved by the research of scientists.
Most affected. Doctors, nurses, catering workers.
- Combustion Syndrome
This is a specific type of professional deformation of persons working in close emotional contact with clients. Combustion syndrome is often manifested in people working in the same place for more than 10 years: they are overtaken by apathy, an understanding of the fact that they have said and done everything in the profession.
Symptoms Fatigue, fatigue, exhaustion, insomnia, negative attitudes towards customers and the work itself, impoverishment of the repertoire of work activities, lack of appetite or overeating, aggression, manifested in irritability, tension, rabies, anxiety, anger; decadent mood, sense of hopelessness, apathy, cynicism, guilt.
The reasons. Problems at work. Potential victims of burnout are employees who have a duty to communicate with people and whose work requires emotional involvement. In addition to the tedious daily communications, the disease can be provoked by routine and monotony, a feeling of undervalued by the management and general stress.
Most affected. Doctors, client managers, psychologists, educators.
- Nervous breakdown
This is a protective reaction of the body to prolonged stress. The most common occupational cause of a nervous breakdown is constant time trouble at work, so those at risk are primarily employees whose work is focused on results and is tied to numerous deadlines.
Symptoms Chronic fatigue, acute headaches, insomnia, mood swings, cardiac disorders, and disorders of the autonomic system.
The reasons. Nervous breakdowns affect employees who work under continuous stress. Such workers for several years do not go on vacation and work around the clock. In the end, the body spends all the forces. Young employees are prone to nervous breakdown: older people have already learned to look at many things easier, but young employees are still taken seriously.
Most affected. Consultants, project managers, journalists.
This is a mental disorder, manifested in increased irritability, fatigue, loss of ability to prolonged mental and physical stress. This ailment is characteristic of ambitious people.
Symptoms Increased irritability and irritability in combination with fatigue and rapid exhaustion. Frequent, but short flashes of excitability. Painful intolerance to loud sounds, noise, bright light, strong odors. Inability to control the external manifestations of their emotions. Attentional disorders, sleep disturbance, lack of appetite, headaches, rapid heartbeat, disorders of sexual function. Workers suffering from neurasthenia can make hysterics, break deadlines, engage in unreasonable conflicts with superiors and colleagues, behave inadequately during negotiations, rush into laughter or tears at meetings. Patients are unable to tolerate any criticism.
The reasons. Incorrect distribution of forces when solving a difficult task. Because of this discrepancy between the desired and the actual and develops neurotic conflict.
Most affected. Top managers, directors.
Hysteria – a form of neurosis, which is a consequence of neuro-psychological overvoltage and conflict.
Symptoms The desire to be the subject of attention of colleagues and bosses, a demonstration of emotions, instability of mood, disorders of sensitivity, coordination. In severe cases – convulsive seizures, which are accompanied by cries, crying, imitation of animal cries, verbal diarrhea, a state of ecstasy with moans. Patients can tear their hair, clothes, while they need the audience.
The reasons. Physical overstrain, injuries, professional dissatisfaction. Studies have shown that people who do not have neurotic character traits, under the influence of excessive mental pressure, develop neurasthenic disorders. In women, the disease is much more common than in men, while women are forgiven for such abnormalities, but men are all inclined to classify them as crazy. Psychologists believe that Adolf Hitler and Vladimir Ilyich Lenin suffered from hysteria.
Happening. “I have such a lady at work,” says accountant Larisa. – She likes to make shows. Often tells fiction about himself. Any comment causes her tears. I do not know why she is like this: maybe her personal life did not work out, maybe she was not noticed for too long. I recently learned that she is registered in a hospital with a diagnosis of “hysteria”.
Most affected. People of creative professions and women.
- Obsessive compulsive disorder
With OCD, the patient has obsessive, disturbing, or frightening thoughts.
Symptoms Constantly recurring irrational actions: the patient can constantly check e-mail once every three minutes, recheck the numbers in the report ten times in a row or wash hands after each handshake or contact with the handset.
The reasons. Most often, this disease is affected by people whose work requires constant high concentration of attention or is associated with an increased level of responsibility. Many lawyers, accountants and engineers are susceptible to this disease, since these professions require attention to trifles, as well as transport drivers, who have to constantly monitor the road. The cause of OCD can be a stressful situation.
Happening. “I had to become a deputy director – I set myself this goal as soon as I joined the company,” says accountant Anna. – I spent at the company for seven years, worked as a convict. Two years ago I became pregnant, but decided to have an abortion, because I could not afford to “leave the game” for a while. Because of this, we divorced my husband. A new leadership came, and I was offered to resign on my own. I was crushed. I started to get depressed, I refused to look for a new job. ” After that, Anna became even worse – there was an incessant feeling of disgust from each object. She is afraid to touch the street clothes of her guests. If their clothes touch her home shape, Anna immediately removes them and sends them to the laundry. “I myself climb in the shower if I touched someone’s clothes. My hair, because I am very afraid to pick up some kind of bacterium or microbes, ”the girl admits. “If I don’t do this, I feel bad, shaking me, I feel irritated and unprotected.”
Most affected. Lawyers, accountants, engineers, drivers.
- Panic Attack
This is an attack of intense fear, accompanied by a feeling of physical discomfort and a sharp increase in pressure. As a rule, repeated many times.
Symptoms Heart palpitations, excessive sweating, tremors, lack of air, pain in the left side of the chest, nausea, dizziness, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, and an inexplicable feeling of fear, including work-related.
Happening. “I headed the department two years ago,” says PR manager Arthur. – I worked in a state of constant stress: none of the subordinates could cope with the tasks, and I had to work for ten. Two times I was taken away by the ambulance – the pressure jumped. After the second attack lay on the survey. The psychotherapist diagnosed panic attack. This is when as a result of strong excitement in 10 minutes the pressure jumps to 170 by 120, and the pulse to 130. ”
Most affected. Artists, PR managers, financiers.
- Postdissuing syndrome
This is a disease that occurs in researchers and project managers after the completion and successful defense of large and responsible work.
Symptoms Anxiety due to lack of work, feeling of emptiness around, desire to do non-existent work, fear of new difficulties, physical indisposition, inability to rest.
The reasons. The disorder develops if, after the end of long-term hard work, the person relaxes and takes a long time out. This disease is also sometimes called “Martin Eden’s syndrome”, by analogy with the hero Jack London, who achieved success with all his might, but instead of a long-awaited feeling of happiness, he experienced a strong disappointment, which eventually led to suicide.
Most affected. Scientists, department heads, economists.
Abulia is a pathological lack of will: a person is aware of the necessity of an act, but cannot accomplish it.
Symptoms Drowsiness, lack of desire to do something, inability to plan, execute work on time, defend ideas at meetings and make decisions.
The reasons. Abulia may be caused by mental illness, such as, for example, depression or schizophrenia. Failures in work, stress overload, physical overstrain, a series of major professional failures can also cause this syndrome. It was Abulia who was ill with Ilya Ilyich Oblomov, the main character of Goncharov’s novel. He did not have strong nerves and a healthy state of mind. He did not want to work, and he feared any responsibility as unbearable physical torment.
Most affected. Attendants, personal assistants, middle managers.
Instead of conclusion
To start any serious mental illness, whether neurasthenia or OCD, the slightest stress is enough. Each process takes place individually, so to say that it will be the impetus for the activation of the disease is impossible. For this, of course, the ready soil is necessary. If a person has a tendency to excessive anxiety and multiple fears, he should try to understand them, otherwise one day the “accumulated baggage” will turn into a disease. The main advice may sound like this: do not turn your life into endless work, do not go into one sphere with your head. Forgetting to switch to other activities, you will one day encounter serious difficulties.