Depression is a mental health disorder in which there is a prolonged low mood, combined with feelings of hopelessness, meaninglessness of life, lethargy and irritability. This state arises as a response to a number of biological, psychological and social factors, too difficult, complex events and experiences.
There are 2 types of depression – neurotic and psychotic. According to psychiatrists, neurotic depression is characterized by apathy, insomnia, and anxiety. The disease is most often found in straightforward and rigid personalities, with a sense of duty, uncompromising.
Predisposing factors for the development of neurotic depression are:
- severe stressful situations;
- mental trauma in childhood;
- educational mistakes of parents;
- use of alcohol or drugs;
- functional diseases of the nervous system;
- unfavorable genetic predisposition.
At risk are people with the above factors of depression. Most often, a depressive disorder begins due to the influence of external factors, and not hormonal disorders. The most important role is given to traumatic incidents (for example, sudden stress or prolonged residence in adverse conditions).
What are mental disorders
Depressive neurosis is accompanied by such disorders:
- astheno -neurotic type – manifested by exhaustion of the nervous system, prolonged fatigue;
- anxiety – phobic type – manifested by inexplicable attacks of panic, anxiety, fear;
- anxiety-depressive type – characterized by a combination of anxiety attacks with emotional oppression;
- hypochondriacal type – manifested by the predominance of uncomfortable sensations, because of which the patient is constantly looking for non-existent diseases in himself.
Unlike psychotic, in the course of a neurotic disorder, there is no damage to the mental functions of a person. Therefore, patients retain a normal perception of the world. However, disturbances in the train of thought are noticeable, there may be some somatic symptoms. The patient is able to critically perceive his own condition.
What are the forms of depression
Every healthy person has some level of anxiety. It is necessary in order to effectively adapt to reality and to the challenges in society. The development of neurotic depression leads to the emergence of various pathological conditions in a person:
- The reactive form of neurotic depression occurs as a result of external factors.
- The personal form of depression is formed from childhood, depends on personal characteristics, the presence of conflict situations.
- endogenous depression is formed gradually, against the background of certain events.
- psychotic depression is not combined with disturbances in the processes of perception of the surrounding world. It usually remains sober and reasonable.
Depressive states are also distinguished by the degree of their severity. With masked or latent depression, the symptoms are mild. The condition of the patients is described as mental suffering. The mood is usually depressed. Patients are concerned about pain in the chest.
In the dysthymic-dysbulic form, the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder increase. Previously existing character traits are sharpened; pessimism prevails in thinking.
At the cyclothymic stage, bouts of melancholy and unmotivated sadness appear. Feelings change throughout the day. Exacerbated somatic disorders.
Signs of depression and nervous exhaustion
Exhaustion of the body on a nervous basis has a characteristic triad. It includes:
- oppression of the emotional sphere;
- suppression of cognitive abilities;
- weakening of psychomotor.
Main mental and physical symptoms:
- persistent headache;
- heart rhythm disturbances;
- feeling of discomfort in the chest area;
- respiratory disorders, the appearance of shortness of breath or a feeling of suffocation;
- indigestion, diarrhea or constipation;
- appetite disorders;
- insomnia or sleepiness at night;
- a feeling of impending danger that appears at any time of the day;
- thoughts of suicide;
- the emergence of auto- aggressive behavior;
- decrease or complete absence of sexual desire;
- tunnel thinking (monotonous; a person sees only what is under his eyes, does not recognize mistakes);
- negative assessment of what is happening in the world;
- social exclusion.
Be careful: there is no definition for neurotic depression in the ICD-10. Depending on the prevailing symptoms, the pathology under consideration is mainly referred to as recurrent depression or dysthymia.
Consequences of a neurotic disorder
Depression at first does not disrupt a person’s performance and social ties. At first, he still works hard. Such performance is associated with the inclusion of a mechanism of escape from a stressful or traumatic situation.
However, the symptoms of depression gradually increase, and after a few years the patient’s quality of life deteriorates markedly. Personal, educational, social spheres suffer, a person becomes more and more isolated in himself.
The disease can be traumatized into a neurotic personality disorder. The patient is at risk of developing drug addiction. Individuals with depression are more likely to commit suicide in 70 to 80 percent of cases. The statistics are staggering: more than 90% of people who died as a result of suicide suffered from depression.
One of the proven symptoms of depression is suicidal ideation . This concept means a person’s awareness in planning and committing suicide.
Treatment and prevention of depression
There has been some progress in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in recent years. Timely seeking medical help speeds up recovery and prevents the aggravation of the pathology. Unfortunately, the patient does not always start treatment on time. In some cases, he begins treatment when he sees that he cannot cope with the problem on his own. To start therapy, the patient must be active himself, which is problematic, since his strength is depleted. In this situation, the help of relatives and friends is important.
Diagnosis and treatment of this disease is carried out by a psychiatrist, psychotherapist or neurologist. Treatment involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Medicines are needed to relieve acute symptoms. Psychotherapy, on the other hand, is prescribed so that the patient realizes the causes and mechanisms of the formation of his illness. In addition, consultations with a psychologist teach a person how to properly respond to stress. This helps prevent the development of depression.
As a rule, depression does not have one cause, so there can be many ways to treat this disease. In the treatment of depression, preference is given to non-drug methods. A psychotherapist may recommend breathing and relaxation training. In some cases, it is recommended to attend group classes.
If neurotic depressive disorder has mild symptoms, the doctor may prescribe tonics and multivitamin preparations for the patient. They stimulate the central nervous system. However, it must be remembered that all medicines cannot be prescribed by oneself: this may worsen the condition of the body even more. In addition, an excessive amount of vitamins is unsafe for humans. Antidepressants that are taken without the permission of a doctor can lead to severe poisoning.
The main way to prevent depressive disorder is the ability to achieve physical relaxation, relieve emotional stress. A person needs to adhere to a normal sleep, work and rest schedule. Meals should be regular. At the first symptoms of depression, you should immediately consult a doctor: delaying treatment is fraught with the development of dangerous symptoms.
Early treatment of depression is the key to a speedy recovery.
Psychologist answers to common questions
How is neurosis different from depression?
These are 2 different mental disorders that have a similar formation mechanism. In some cases, the symptoms of these diseases may be similar. However, there are also differences. With depression, a person does not have any positive emotions, he is dominated by a feeling of hopelessness and gloom.
At the same time, during a neurosis, a certain uncertainty, anxiety, and tension prevail. With neurosis, a person’s thinking is fast, which cannot be said about depression. Moreover, with depression, a certain lethargy is noticeable.
How to overcome fears
To combat the feeling of fear, it is recommended to do the exercise. First, a person should think about the situation that causes anxiety or fear. Next, you need to answer the following questions:
- what thoughts arise when I am overcome by a feeling of fear;
- what is the worst thing that could happen in this situation;
- how else can you explain the reasons for this situation;
- How could I have dealt with situations like this before?
Psychologists have a rich set of training techniques to combat fear and anxiety. At the first pronounced signs of neurotic depression, you should immediately contact a psychiatrist.
Mikhail Ivanovich Skvira
He graduated from the GomGMU with a degree in General Medicine. Clinical psychologist, Master of Psychology, from 2016 to 2018, a leading specialist in the GOKPB for working with alcohol addiction using the Edelweiss method, author of articles and publications. Marked with gratitude for many years of fruitful work in the healthcare system.
Work experience: 16 years
How to treat neurosis in children: the opinion of a pediatrician
Neurosis is a psychological disease, which is a reaction to mental trauma. The manifestation of childhood neurosis depends on the psychic trauma itself, as well as on the personality of the child himself.
Features of the formation of neurosis in a child
Next, consider the origin of childhood neuroses.
Their feature in children is the formation of personality against the background of immaturity. To understand, the personality of children is determined by the type of upbringing in the family.
It is worth highlighting the main “inadequate” types of education:
- Insufficient attention to the baby – ” hypoprotection “.
- Over-attention is ” overprotection “.
- Cruel upbringing.
- authoritarian upbringing.
As a rule, improper upbringing can harm the formation of the personality and temperament of the baby. As a result, negative character traits appear, inadequate reactions from the child. Sooner or later, this leads to a feeling of inferiority, against which any negative external influence can lead to neurosis. The role of a negative factor can be: a rude word, a loud remark, a change in living conditions, and much more.
Given the immaturity of the personality in children, typical forms of neurosis rarely develop. More often they have more simple disorders – systemic neuroses. They can manifest themselves from any organ and organ system. It is believed that the choice of damage to a particular organ depends on the hereditary susceptibility (weakness) of the organ or body system. Such weak points in children are often the motor apparatus (formation of stuttering) and the urinary system (development of enuresis).
There is also another mechanism of development: a combination of increased nervous tension and the performance of a certain action or movement at that moment. So, this action or movement can lead to the formation of tics in the baby. Thus, neuroses in childhood are most often manifested by tics, stuttering and enuresis. If untreated, systemic neuroses often turn into “classic” neuroses with age, as in adults.
With neurosis in children, stuttering is common.