Emotional disorders in symptomatology are divided into productive and negative.
Effective emotional disorders:
- The pathology of sensory tone includes emotional hyperesthestenia and hypesthesia.
Emotional hyperesthesia – a violation of sensual tone, in which the usual strength of sensation and perception are accompanied by inadequate, heightened emotional coloring.
Emotional hypesthesia is a violation of sensual tone, in which ordinary-strength sensations and perceptions are accompanied by inadequate weakened emotional coloring.
Included in the structure of de – realization and depersonalization disorders.
- The pathology of emotional states, relationships, reactions consists of hypothymia , hyperthymia , parathymia, and disturbances in the dynamics of emotions.
Hypotension (depression, dysthymia).
Tosca is an emotional state with a predominance of sadness, depression and depression of all mental processes.
Included in the structure of depressive, neurotic and depressive -paranoidnyh, oneiric syndromes dysphoria.
Anxiety is an emotional state, accompanied by a premonition and anxious expectation of impending disaster, pessimistic fears facing the future, or a reaction characterized by internal agitation, anxiety, constraint and tension, localized in the chest.Unlike longing, anxiety is an activating affect.
Included in the structure of neurotic, anxiety-depressive, acutely delusional, affective-delusional syndromes and stupefaction.
Confusion is a changeable, labile emotional state with the experience of bewilderment, helplessness.
Included in the structure of obscuration syndromes, atypical affective, affective-paranoid, acute delusional syndromes.
Fear – an emotional state or reaction, the contents of which are concerns about their well-being or life. Frightening – short-term strong affective reaction.
Included in the structure of phobic , acute delusional syndromes, acute hallucinosis , stupefaction, hypothalamic paroxysms, night and day fears in children.
Euphoria is an inadequately elevated emotional state with a predominance of a sense of joy, happiness in life, and an increased desire for action.
Included in the structure of manic, manic-delusional, oneiric , paraphrenic syndromes, alcohol and some forms of drug addiction and toxic intoxication.
Complacency is an emotional state with a tinge of contentment, carelessness without the desire for action.
Included in the structure of paralytic, pseudo-paralytic, psychoorganic , Korsakovsky syndromes and some types of dementia syndromes.
Ecstasy is an emotional state with the highest elevation, exaltation, often with a religious mystical tinge of experience.
Included in the structure of the syndrome of special states of consciousness, atypical manic syndrome, the oneiric state of consciousness.
Anger – the highest degree of irritability, nastiness, discontent with the tendency to aggression, destructive actions.
Included in the structure of dysphoria, twilight states of consciousness, psychoorganic and atypical manic syndromes.
Ambivalence – the simultaneous coexistence of two opposite in sign emotional assessments of the same fact, object, event.
Emotional inadequacy is a qualitative discrepancy between the emotional reaction and the reason for it. One of the variants of emotional and adequacy is family hatred.
Both symptoms are part of the structure of catatonic and negative personal disorders.
Emotional lability – a quick and frequent change in the polarity of emotions that occurs without sufficient reason is sometimes groundless.
It is characteristic of asthenic, withdrawal symptoms, stupefaction, hysterical manifestations, delirium.
Weak movement (inertia, rigidity) is a protraction of an emotional reaction, manifested by a long stay on one emotion, the reason for which has already disappeared.
Included in the structure of the epileptic personality changes, psychoorganic syndrome.
Weak-mindedness (a form of emotional hyperesthesia) is impossible to restrain external, controlled by volitional effort, manifestations of emotional reactions.
Included in the structure of neurotic and psychoorganic syndromes of hysterical manifestations.
The main types of pathological emotional response
The catatymic type occurs in certain life situations that cause emotional stress (ie, in stressful situations). These reactions are relatively short-lived, labile, have psychogenic conditioning and content. In this type, neurosis and reactive psychosis arise and develop.
The holothyme type is determined by the presence of the polarity of psychopathological states, primary nature (endogenous conditioning), their relative stability and frequency of occurrence. The subjective state and environment are subject to overvalued or delusional interpretation, the content of which coincides with the dominant emotional state. This type of emotional pathology is characteristic of endogenous psychosis (manic-depressive psychosis, some psychosis, schizophrenia).
Paratymic type is characterized by dissociation, violation of unity in the emotional sphere between emotional manifestations and other components of mental activity. It occurs in schizophrenia.
The explosive type of pathological emotional response is characterized by a combination of inertia, weak mobility of emotional manifestations and their explosiveness and impulsivity. This type of emotional pathology is characteristic of epilepsy, some organic diseases of the brain.
The demental type is combined with the increasing signs of dementia. It is noted by the disinhibition of lower impulsive drives against the background of complacency, euphoria or apathy, hypobulia , hypodynamia, aspontanity with gross noncriticality . This type of emotional pathology is characteristic of progressive dementia (senile dementia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, presenile dementia, progressive paralysis, etc.).
Mixed behavior and emotion disorders
These disorders are characterized by a combination of persistent aggressive, dissocial or defiant behavior with obvious, noticeable symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other emotional disturbances. Diagnosis requires that the condition meets the criteria for neurotic , affective or emotional disorders and, at the same time, the general criteria for behavioral disorders in childhood.
General criteria for behavioral disorders
There is a steady behavior, characterized by repetitive actions that violate the interests and rights of other people, as well as relevant age norms of children’s behavior. This behavior is observed for at least six months.
At the same time, the following symptoms are also found in the child. At the same time, in view of the severity of the symptoms, even their single occurrence is sufficient for the requirements provided for by the relevant criteria to be satisfied:
1) Frequent or unusual outbreaks of anger for an appropriate level of child development;
2) The patient often argues with adults;
3) Often refuses to comply with the requirements of adults or openly violates their rules;
4) Often, and deliberately, commits acts that plague other people;
5) He systematically tries to blame others for his own mistakes or actions;
6) Easily offended or irritated in response to the words or actions of others;
7) Often angry or outraged;
8) Often shows rancor or vindictiveness;
9) Often pretends to be sick in order to gain benefits or evade duties;
10) Often fights are fought (do not include fights with brothers or sisters);
11) In fights, he uses a weapon that can cause serious physical damage to other people, for example, a broken bottle, knife, stone, club;
12) Despite the prohibitions of parents, often remains on the street after dark;
13) Often skips schoolwork;
14) Runs away from the parental home (at least ran away twice and was absent longer than during one night);
15) Steal valuable items from home or from other places;
16) Shows physical cruelty to animals;
17) Often pursues, “poisons” others (children, helpless, elderly people);
18) Deliberately commits acts leading to the damage or destruction of another’s property;
19) Intentionally make fire with the risk or intent to cause serious damage;
20) Shows physical cruelty to other people (binds the victim, burns or cuts her);
21) Performs offenses (theft, extortion, etc.);
22) Forcing another person to have sex.G 2. This disorder does not meet the diagnostic criteria for other mental and behavioral disorders in children and adults.
In ICD-10 stand out:
F 92.0 Depressive behavior disorder characterized by a combination of one of the symptoms of a behavior disorder and general criteria for depressive disorders.
F 92.8 Other mixed behavioral disorders characterized by the combination of one of the common symptoms of a conduct disorder with anxiety or phobic symptoms.