A condition characterized by a depressed or melancholy mood, a decrease in mental activity, combined with a variety of somatic disorders (loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, change in the rhythm of cardiac activity, etc.).


Today, the term “depression” very often means simply a prolonged bad mood, although in reality real depression has nothing to do with those who simply got the wrong foot. This is a serious psychological disorder that can affect any person, regardless of age and gender.

Depression in adults

Depression in women

Features of the female psyche determine a greater (compared with men) exposure of women to various kinds of depressive disorders. Pronounced apathy, sadness, negative mood that knocks down so that it interferes with normal life for several weeks or more – this is depression in women, which can and should be combated.

Pregnancy depression

Although the emotional state of a woman during pregnancy is far from always positive and cloudless, one cannot always talk about real depression. But if for several weeks the future mother has consistently present characteristic symptoms, you should pay attention to this.

Depression: symptoms during pregnancy:

  • Any problems with sleep, whether it is insomnia or, conversely, the desire to constantly sleep.
  • Appetite problems. Indeed, the appetite of pregnant women is an unpredictable thing, but an unreasonable refusal of food, or, conversely, excessive appetite, can be a sign of a psychological disorder.
  • Negative mood. Uncertainty about what will happen next, a sharp drop in self-esteem, hopelessness – faithful companions of depression in pregnant women
  • Irritability, hysteria, a woman can burst into tears at any time, although she herself does not fully understand the reason.
  • Atypical movements. Compared to normal behavior, any movement becomes slower or too fast.

The difficulty is that most of these manifestations are associated with a normal condition for a pregnant woman. But if such violations are persistent, and not episodic, it is better to consult a doctor – because depression in women during pregnancy negatively affects the baby. The fact is that in this condition, the level of cortisol is increased in the mother’s blood, which, being transmitted with blood to the baby, can lead to various neurological and other disorders of the child, as well as provoke a miscarriage.

The causes of depression in this period can be various factors – both internal and external. Difficulties in family relationships, a difficult financial situation, pressure from relatives, a change in one’s appearance and poor health caused by toxicosis can become a push into the abyss of a negative emotional state. Problems with previous pregnancies also contribute to the development of depression.

This may surprise many, but it is recommended to protect a pregnant woman from the “carriers” of such psychological disorders in the same way as from infectious patients. Psychologists have shown that neurotic disorders are very quickly transmitted from one family member to another, so this situation can also cause the development of depression in a pregnant woman.

Postpartum depression

The postpartum period, especially for those with a first child, is not the most cloudless time. The woman’s body is restored after a serious test, and the woman herself has to get used to a new role, new responsibility, a new daily routine, which can be associated with lack of sleep, fatigue, and other “pleasant” additions. All this can trigger a phenomenon called “postpartum depression.”

Depression after childbirth is a long period during which a woman does not leave a feeling of despondency, extreme fatigue, tension, sometimes flowing into hysteria. A striking symptom is the absence of manifestations of maternal instinct; the woman begins to feel guilty, which further exacerbates the negative state. Add to this the feeling of loneliness and helplessness – and you will understand how postpartum depression looks.

“Get a hold of yourself! Don’t be capricious! ”Often, women suffering from depression after childbirth, instead of support, get such a“ motivation ”that does not really help to get out of the pit, but, on the contrary, pushes it deeper. It is important for relatives during this period to understand that this is not just a strangeness in behavior, because a young mother wants it so much, she simply cannot do it differently. Just as a flu patient cannot be ordered not to sweat due to high fever, in this case one cannot say “stop” and hope that it works. Support and help are the best cures for depression. However, in some cases , consulting a psychologist will not hurt, because the help of a professional will significantly speed up recovery.

Depression in men

Male depression is less common than depression in women, and yet this condition deserves attention. Moreover, the reluctance to “demonstrate weakness” leads to the fact that it is difficult for others to determine that the problem is generally present. Sometimes men themselves do not associate such emotional manifestations as irritability, aggressiveness, depression, with the concept of depression. And even more so, physical manifestations do not correlate with it, and depression symptoms are not only psychological and can easily cause a headache, a sharp weight gain or problems with an erection.

The complexity of male depression lies not only in its problematic definition, even by the forces of psychologists and doctors, but also in ways to solve it. Most men in such periods seek salvation in solitude, isolation, even from loved ones. Often mixed with this is the abuse of alcohol and even narcotic substances, which is not an option, but rather leads the person even more into the jungle of negativity. But, it would seem, a logical option – a psychologist who will help cope with this condition, many men reject, unreasonably fearing that it could damage his reputation.

Depression in children

Childhood is a cloudless time, at least that is what most adults think. But specialists in child psychology do not agree with this statement, because they know very well that even the clear skies of the childhood period can be overshadowed by overcast clouds, whose name is depression.

As in the case of adults, this is not just a bad mood, but a whole complex that includes both the emotional state and physical manifestations. In children of different ages, depression can manifest itself in different ways, but is almost always accompanied by complaints of health. How to get out of depression on their own, the child does not think – because he does not even know why he is so sad and bad.

If an adult has an indicator of guilt in such an emotional state that is aimed primarily at himself (I am to blame for what happened, I can’t cope, I can’t), then the children begin to blame the environment, and first of all, these are parents. In fact, mom and dad are most often not to blame for anything – it’s just a manifestation of an emotional state.

Depression in adolescents

The adolescent period is a time of instability, including psychological. It is not surprising that teenage depression is distinguished by psychologists as a separate type of this disorder. Many parents, noticing that their child becomes apathetic, indifferent, inattentive, attribute this to the difficulties of the teenage period. Meanwhile, the lack of treatment for depression can lead to further problems in the life of a teenager, and in search of an option on how to get out of depression on his own, he may well turn to alcohol, drugs and promiscuous connections.

Stress and depression

Stress and depression often go side by side, while the second can easily flow from the first. In the modern world, stress is almost impossible to avoid, since we encounter them daily – even a banal crush in public transport can become a source of negative emotions. Stress is not always negative. A bright event with a plus sign, for example, the birth of the firstborn, can also be considered stressful.

Emotional overstrain excites the nervous system, for which it is not typical to stay in this state for a very long time – it needs to relax from this stress. And here, depression comes to the fore, in which all the nervous processes are inhibited, the nervous system rests from stress. Everything seems to be harmonious and useful, but why then is this condition considered a disease that sometimes requires professional treatment?

The main problem is the strength of the experiences that a person experiences. The stronger the shock, the deeper and longer the depression will be, and not the fact that a person will be able to cope with it. A long stay in such a condition harms a person who can stop monitoring himself, contact with other people, eat, go to work … it is obvious that in such a situation a person needs help. Therefore, stress and depression are always considered interrelated.

How to deal with depression

Sometimes, in order to cope with depression, your own determination and a certain plan of action are enough. Of course, we are not talking about severe forms in which not only the help of a specialist is required, but also the use of medications. You can completely try to adhere to the following principles, and you will see how to deal with depression becomes easier:

  • Occupy yourself.

It is clear that I don’t feel like working or even taking elementary actions in this state, but activity is the first step towards overcoming depression. Try to start with basic actions, for example, tidy up your apartment or take a walk in the fresh air.

  • Have a rest.

Your body needs to regain strength in order to overcome a psychological disorder. In order to relieve nervous tension, provide yourself with enough sleep.

  • Chat.

If you are alone during a period of depression, negative thoughts gradually begin to prevail over your determination to return to an active and cheerful life. Talking with people who understand you, whether you are relatives or friends, will give you an advantage in the fight against negativity, and stress and depression will affect you less.

  • No comparative characteristics.

We are all not perfect, but this does not mean that you need to constantly tune yourself for the worst and independently trample your self-esteem in the mud.

  • Eat well.

Proper nutrition will not only provide your body with the necessary energy for recovery. Include chocolate, bananas, citrus fruits and other products in your diet that themselves can increase the level of endorphins in the body – pleasure hormones.

Keep in mind that these tips are general and additional measures may be required in each case. How to get out of depression independently, everyone decides for himself, however, there is a general rule: purposeful movement towards the goal.

Symptoms of Depression

Depression: the symptoms of the disease are mostly similar, but may vary from case to case.

Signs of Depression in Adults

Symptoms of Depression in Women

All women are different, and the signs of depression in women can also manifest themselves in different ways, affecting not only the emotional sphere, but also directly affecting the state of health. However, you should not confuse just a bad mood and psychological disorder. In the latter case, the nature of the manifestations is longer and more stable – more than two weeks of bad mood and loss of strength just do not happen. Psychologists recommend paying attention to the following manifestations:

  • Emotional disturbances.

The woman does not feel that the meaning of life has been lost, even her favorite activities no longer bring joy, and besides, the feeling of impending disaster is constantly depressing. Against this background, various fears and complexes are activated – a depressed woman is never happy with herself, constantly seeks out negative aspects and blames herself for it. There are difficulties in making ordinary decisions, it is difficult to concentrate; some even believe that suicide is the best way out.

  • Somatic disorders.

The most characteristic of this condition is all kinds of sleep disturbances. A woman may not sleep at night, or vice versa, have a constant desire to sleep. To this are added such signs of depression as appetite problems, which, again, are individual for each: someone doesn’t get a piece in his throat, but someone sweeps everything off the shelves in the refrigerator. The total energy of the body does not allow you to perform even those actions that previously did not cause any difficulties. Suddenly appearing pains bring additional discomfort: the stomach aches, the heart aches, and the muscles hurt.

  • Behavioral Disorders.

If a woman is depressed, she does not want anything – neither to work, nor to carry out any business, nor to communicate even with those close to her. Even personal hygiene habits are relegated to the background, some of them even become “unnecessary.” But attempts to forget with the help of alcohol and other bad habits are activated.

Symptoms of Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression is a special kind of mental disorder that can overtake any young mother, and not necessarily immediately after returning from the hospital — weeks or even months can pass. To distinguish a real problem, you need to pay attention to the following manifestations:

  • Fear for your child.

Of course, every mother worries about her baby, but during depression, this fear develops into a real panic. In this case, the mother begins to blame herself even for what should not cause great concern. For example, he accuses himself of worthlessness if the baby accidentally caught a mild cold.

  • Complaints of fatigue.

A woman constantly repeats about how difficult it is for her alone with the baby, how tired she is and wants to relax, while at the same time she may not take into account that her relatives still help her . A bad mood often literally “pours out” along with tears of resentment.

  • Conflict.

Surprisingly, often this psychological disorder finds a way out in aggression directed towards others. Even if there is no reason for a quarrel, it is created by a woman intentionally, which causes bewilderment of loved ones.

  • Physical manifestations.

Negative moods, fits of hysteria are often accompanied by the feeling that the heart is now jumping out of the chest. Constantly, regardless of the situation, a headache. Sometimes a woman finds temporary calm in peculiar “rituals” in which there is practically no sense – for example, to wipe an already clean table for the hundredth time in a day, but this is not an option on how to deal with depression, but only a temporary measure.

Signs of Depression in Men

Manifestations of depression in men are slightly different from a similar state in women. The main characteristics in this case, psychologists include:

  • Emotional disturbances.

Apathy, lack of interest, sudden changes in mood with a predominance of aggressive conditions are characteristic of depression in men. Unreasonable anxiety and suspicion often appear.

  • Somatic disorders.

As well as representatives of the weaker sex, men in a period of depression have various sleep disturbances: problems with falling asleep, constant drowsiness or a “torn” dream, when a person wakes up several times during the night for no apparent reason. Changes in weight may be present. The companion of most men during depression is problems with an erection, which can become a worsening factor for the general condition.

  • Behavioral Disorders.

Alcohol, cigarettes, drugs – many men turn to them, and not to psychologists, who want to understand how to cope with depression. Someone in an effort to “knock themselves out of the rut” gets into all the hardships: intentionally violates the rules of the road, enters into extramarital affairs even in a good climate in the family. Thoughts of suicide are the worst that a person in a similar condition can come to, because it is men who often purposefully bring such plans to fruition.

Symptoms of Depression in Children

Under 12 years of age, it is difficult to diagnose depression in any child, primarily because it is difficult for children to express in words what they are experiencing. This psychological problem can occur even in the youngest children who still cannot speak, so parents should pay attention to the following symptoms:

  • Early childhood (from birth to three years).

General inhibition of movements, as well as a deterioration in appetite, too frequent spitting up and even vomiting. The child is too capricious, often cries even when fed up and is in comfort.

  • Preschool age (from 3 to 7 years).

The first thing you can suspect of a state of depression is a loss of interest in all activities, including your favorite games. A child often says that he is sad, wants to cry, he is afraid of the dark. The facial expressions of such a child lose children’s vitality and spontaneity, and movements become slow, like a little old man. Various painful sensations join the big picture: the baby complains that his stomach or head, arms, legs and the whole body hurt.

  • Younger school age (from 7 to 11).

The child does not want to play with friends, he is not interested and difficult to learn, he often cries, complains of headaches and other ailments. The closer the child is to the teenage period, the brighter are the manifestations of aggression even to close people.

Symptoms of Depression in Adolescents

Adolescence is a difficult time, and it is not surprising that many adolescents are depressed during this period. Although it is sometimes difficult to notice, since the mood of a teenager already constantly jumps from side to side, parents need to be more careful to be able to come to the aid of their child in time. Symptoms of depression in adolescence are as follows:

  • Detachment, indifference, apathetic attitude. A teenager is indifferent to people, things, and activities. Avoids communication.
  • Appetite problems. Even your favorite chips or pizza no longer make you want to eat, not to mention other, less attractive dishes.
  • Loss of night sleep, which is combined with daytime activity.
  • Various pains that bother constantly. Pain in the stomach, in the heart, headache is not too strong, but intrusive.
  • Noticeable thoughts of death. They can manifest themselves in various forms – creativity, the desire for risk, various statements, even in actions that lead to self-inflicted wounds and other injuries.
  • Propensity to drink, smoke, drugs.

A few signs from this list are already an occasion to think that something more serious is happening to a teenager than a usual youthful ruff.

Symptoms of Severe Depression

Severe depression differs from other forms in that it practically chokes a person, depriving him of the ability to perform even basic actions. The following signs are most pronounced in this case:

  • Extreme fatigue. A depressed person spends most of the day in a dream, while sleep does not rest – when he wakes up, the person still feels broken and incapable of anything.
  • Problems with memory, attention, decision making. It is difficult to remember a shopping list of 4 items, it is difficult to concentrate on one thing, it is difficult to even choose what to wear, and even more so decide how to deal with depression.
  • Hopelessness. Such people are constantly haunted by the thought that nobody needs them, are incapable of anything, and the blame for all this lies solely with themselves. These allegations often push a person to do harm to himself or even suicide.
  • The surrounding reality is absolutely uninteresting. Neither work, nor sport, nor hobbies, nor communication – nothing is enthusiastic.
  • Pain in the head, stomach, heart. Attempts to treat them with conventional tablets do not bring success.
  • In the morning, the patient’s negative mood is especially strong.
  • Violations of ordinary movements: a person moves unnaturally, inhibited.
  • In especially complex cases, mental disorders are added to other symptoms: stupor, hallucinations, delirium.

Types of Depression

Clinical (major) depression

A major depressive disorder, also called clinical depression, is a complex of symptoms that have been present in a sick person for a long time. The mood, the dream, and even the human body, signaling that something is not in order, are in constant pain.

If you do not pay attention to this state of depression and try to justify it simply by lingering spleen caused by problems at work, quarrels with relatives or just bad weather outside the window, the condition will only worsen. The result of this can be problems in all areas of human life – and in relationships with others, and in professional activities, and in personal terms. It is important to determine that this is depression.

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression overtakes women after pregnancy and childbirth are already behind. Of course, it is not typical for all young mothers, however, cases when a woman is in a bad mood day after day, blames herself for everything that happens, experiences a keen sense of loneliness and fatigue, and other dubious “joys” are not so rare. Everything is complicated by the fact that the woman’s body, including the hormonal background, is restored during this period. But the new role of the mother, which has yet to be mastered, requires a lot of strength, so the support of others is very important. However, even those women who are surrounded by attention and care from the first days of returning from the hospital can face problems.

Bipolar form of depression

The bipolar form of depression is better known as manic-depressive psychosis or bipolar affective disorder. Basically, it begins to manifest itself in adolescence, but it can also overtake older people. A feature of this state is that a person literally throws between two poles. At one pole is an extremely sad mood, at the second – increased activity, the level of which exceeds the norm.

Pole changes in different people can occur in different ways. For someone, they alternate both among themselves and with periods of normal mood. There are cases when apathy predominates, while the “manic” pole is switched on quite rarely and, in principle, does not interfere with normal life. When everything happens the other way around, a melancholy mood visits a person less often, but excessive activity in combination with a high (sometimes unreasonably high) self-esteem of others begins to even bother.

Bipolar disorder is all the more dangerous the more extreme the conditions are. Deep melancholy can push a person to commit suicide, and “mania” often becomes the cause of various crazy ideas.

Seasonal depression

As the name implies, the main sign of seasonal depression is its link to a specific time of the year. There are two main types of this ailment: the winter type manifests itself in early autumn and ends in late spring, and the less common summer type shows itself in early summer, allowing the person to return to normal by the beginning of autumn. But in both cases, the state of depression manifests itself in the same way. This is fatigue, apathy, a bad mood that does not depend on what is happening around, a general decrease in activity and an unwillingness to do something, whether it is compulsory things like work, or your favorite hobby.

Anxiety depression

“Forewarned means armed,” the proverb says, and so many people presume a worse outcome in advance. However, it is worth distinguishing between normal fears for one’s own future, especially those supported by external events, from a disease called anxiety depression.

Unreasonable anxiety combined with low self-esteem makes it very difficult to live and make even the most basic decisions. Any thing is alarming, any person is perceived negatively, any atypical sensation in one’s own body makes the imagination play a scene about a deadly disease. Naturally, such a state of depression makes it very difficult to live normally, especially if you remember that the outcome of any upcoming event is negative for such people.

Dystrophic form

The dystrophic form of depression is another variety, the hallmark of which is an aversion to life. It can be expressed in different ways: sometimes a depressed person simply constantly complains about how the world is unfairly arranged, how prices have risen, what noisy neighbors he got, what bright sunshine today is, in general, a typical grump that will always find a reason. In others, the anguish, apathy, and dissatisfaction that are characteristic of depression result in aggressive behavior. At any moment, this person can detonate like a time bomb, and it does not matter what serves as the spark that ignited the wick of this bomb. For this type of disorder, motor inhibition is sometimes typical, reaching the point that a person categorically does not want to move at all.

Ironic form

A very interesting and rare type of depression, which is precisely characterized by the expression “laughter through tears.” These patients use irony, poking fun at themselves, like the shield with which they are trying to repel the disease. So the brain is trying to protect itself, and sometimes it may even seem that it works out – right up to the moment when such a person tries to commit suicide, unable to withstand his own condition and not seeing the point in later life. It is ironic depression in this regard that is quite dangerous – a person remains active, tries to do something and even jokes while cats scratch his soul.

Anesthetic depression

The concept of “anesthesia” is familiar to us from medicine – there anesthetics are used to reduce sensitivity. Anesthetic depression bears this name for the same reason, because the main complaints of a person in this case are associated with the loss of their own emotions. The lack of a feeling of love for loved ones, joy from life is very worrying for a person. A depressed person feels as if he was wrapped in a cocoon, from which it is impossible to normally look at the world around him. Everything around seems gray, lifeless, as if painted.

This type of psychological disorder has three components: lack of feelings, lack of sensations (for example, hunger or the desire to sleep), and the lack of the ability to fully perceive the world. In each case, all three components may be present in full, and one of the three components may also prevail.

Asthenic depression

Asthenic depression is otherwise called exhaustion syndrome. It is considered a fairly mild form of the disease, but this does not mean that it simply does not need to be paid attention to. Its main manifestation is fatigue, which has nothing to do with what a person does. Even in the morning, only when he wakes up, does he feel overwhelmed and desire to rest yet; Incidentally, it is in the morning that this condition manifests itself most vividly, but by the evening a person feels somewhat better. Therefore, it is important to understand how to deal with depression.

Human activity decreases, especially if the condition is gradually worsening: if in a mild form a person can still perform usual actions, go to work, even through “I can’t”, then with a severe course of the disease he can hardly even wash himself and comb his hair . This state of depression is reflected in the personality of the person who becomes a pessimist, loses faith in his abilities and ultimately becomes indifferent to everything that happens around him.

Somatized form

The somatized form of depression, which is also masked, is a vivid manifestation of how our mind affects the health of our body. The brain in this case literally tells a person how he should feel, and these suggestions clearly do not benefit the body. Such a person will visit doctors, undergo examinations many times, take medications, but the healing effect can be expected only when the person’s psyche becomes the object of treatment. Typical manifestations of depressive disorders such as apathy, indifference to what is happening, a negative attitude, in this case, are hidden behind manifestations similar to real diseases. This is a real depression, what to do with it is better for a specialist to decide.

Disease Depression

Unlike the previous version, depression in diseases is the result of some kind of chronic illness, so the causes of depression in this case are not only in stress. Diabetes, arthritis, heart and kidney problems, and other diseases that have accompanied a person for many years not only destroy the body, but also negatively affect the patient’s psyche.

The more difficult the fight against the disease, the more the patient is forced to change the usual rhythm of life, the more likely the changes in the psyche. It may seem that a bad mood in this case is logical, but if we are talking about depression, it can not only spoil the general mood, but also aggravate the underlying ailment, because of which it appeared.

Severity of Depression

According to international classification, there are three degrees of severity of depression. The disease can either remain in one phase or progress, which is especially often manifested in the absence of attempts to cope with the growing spleen and unwillingness to do something. The treatment for depression depends on its severity.

Mild depression

This degree is almost invisible to others, because, if there are symptoms, they appear slightly. The human psyche is able to resist bouts of despondency, so that it can be distracted by something else with almost no effort. The mild degree does not affect the performance, on the performance of various household chores, on the observance of necessary hygiene – in general, the lifestyle practically does not suffer. To cope with depression in the mild phase, you can not visit a psychologist, because if you have a desire to decide how to deal with depression, really yourself.

Moderate depression

The second stage of depression already has a more pronounced effect on human life. A depressed person devotes a lot of time to his own thoughts, and his colleagues, friends and family more and more often want to ask: “Why do you have such a face?”. Everything has to be done through force, more and more conflicts arise, problems with sleep appear. Feeling of guilt and worthlessness is another sure sign of the second stage.

Severe depression

Severe depression seems to crush a person with his own weight and literally does not allow him to get out of bed. He shuns any contact, spending a lot of time alone with his own gloomy thoughts. It is in this state that people often refuse to go to work, do housework, even simply wash their face and brush their teeth, it seems to them a meaningless action. The most dangerous consequence of this phase is suicide, which can lead to a lack of competent therapy and any help to a person.

Causes of depression

Any disease has a cause, and depression is no exception. In each case, a similar mental disorder may appear for various reasons, but there are certain common features.

Causes of Depression in Men

Male depression most often begins to manifest as a reaction to something that knocks a person out of a rut. Stress associated with work, personal relationships, self-realization, or other factors can trigger the onset of depressive experiences. However, scientists argue that the exact causes have not yet been determined.

If a man’s family has previously experienced cases of depression, this shows a hereditary predisposition, and such people are more prone to mental disorders due to stress. Age crises can also be the cause of apathy, a feeling of lack of prospects and the meaning of life.

Causes of Depression in Women

Women are inherently more emotional than men, and more sensitive to stress, and features such as changes in hormones make them more susceptible to depression. Social factors also play an important role in the fact that women can start a psychological disorder. Dismissal from work, parting with a loved one, problems with parents or a child – there are a lot of social factors, especially if at these moments a woman does not feel support.

Causes of Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression occurs primarily because after giving birth a woman changes the level of hormones in the blood, and this causes a feeling of depression, fatigue. The mood swings inherent in this condition also often appear along with a change in the hormonal background. To this are added various difficulties associated with the development of a new role – the role of the mother. Responsibility, fatigue, frequent lack of sleep, forced restructuring of one’s own schedule to the requirements of the baby can cause a negative mood and guilt. External factors in the form of pressure from others, which instead of support indicate what and how to do, and also do not miss the opportunity to report what a woman is doing wrong, exacerbate the situation. She begins to seriously blame herself for not coping and digs herself deeper into the pit of psychological disorder.

Causes of Depression in Adolescents

The adolescent period is a time of rampant hormones, which in themselves lead to mood swings. Hormones also cause interest in the opposite sex; a teenager seeks reciprocity, but does not always find it, and such difficulties can also cause depression. Another factor is relationships with parents. Most adolescents are worried, believing that these closest people cease to understand them, are “on a different wave”, and from this they become self-conscious, but the feeling of loneliness does not clearly raise the mood. If family problems, failures at school are added to this, it is quite possible that the teenager will really become isolated and his condition will gradually worsen. They don’t think that this is depression and what to do with it – they are just more and more isolated in their own gloomy thoughts.

Somatic causes of depression

The saying “in a healthy body is a healthy mind” in this case is justifiable, since many diseases are accompanied by depression. Such diseases primarily include disorders of the thyroid gland, since it is she who is responsible for the production of hormones. The adrenal glands are also involved in the production of these important substances, so Addison’s disease and other problems with the adrenal glands often go along with apathy and negative moods. Diabetes mellitus is another disease whose complications can cause depression.

Infectious diseases are a frequent source of psychological disorders, while a depressed mood may be the result of the work of viruses, but may be purely psychological in nature, since hardly anyone likes to get sick and feel discomfort from this. And, of course, one cannot ignore such serious diseases as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and diseases in which nerve cells slowly die. In such patients, the picture of symptoms very often includes a variety of depressive disorders. Somatic causes also include metabolic disorders, deficiency of vitamins and minerals, various poisonings, heart and vascular diseases.

Diagnosis of Depression

In order to treat something, you must first make a diagnosis. Depression is no exception, and in order to return a person to a normal state, it is necessary to correctly determine the peculiarity of his psychological problem, its stage, and on the basis of this, develop a treatment for depression.

Problems Diagnosing Depression

There are a lot of symptoms of this condition, and this is the main problem in the diagnosis. The situation is further complicated by the fact that part of these symptoms is also characteristic of other disorders of nervous activity, for example, neurosis, schizophrenia or psychosis. In addition, when interviewing patients, doctors are faced with another problem – the inaccuracy of the description of symptoms, because it is sometimes very difficult to accurately formulate what you feel, and therefore, understanding how to cope with depression is also more difficult.

As you know, in everyday life we ​​often use this concept, designating them even the usual spoiled mood. Meanwhile, if a bad mood has been haunting a person for several weeks, interfering with a normal life, not everyone will decide to go to a psychologist – it’s just the mood! Such an attitude to one’s own health can be considered a real problem, especially if independent unsuccessful attempts to heal the mind are mixed with this.

Biochemical diagnostics

Biochemical diagnosis of depression is a method created to accurately determine the presence of the disease, as well as to more accurately prescribe medications to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system. Although earlier such developments have caused a lot of doubts, recent studies show that some indicators are indeed directly related to the development of depressive states.

For analysis, the patient’s blood is checked for the level of certain substances associated with neurotransmitters – serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are responsible for protecting brain cells from chronic anxiety conditions, so a drop in their level below a certain norm can cause too strong a reaction to stress. The appointment of special medicines, the type and dosage of which helps determine the biochemical analysis of the blood, will help to solve the problem of how to get rid of depression.

Questionnaires, Scales, and Depression Tests

Specially designed questionnaires and other similar methods are a classic method for determining depression. They were developed on the basis of studying the symptoms of depression of various types, as well as those complaints that were most often voiced by patients. Most of these tests are publicly available, for example, on the Internet, so anyone can take the survey themselves and get approximate results for themselves. Remember that it is better to entrust the study of the results and treatment of depression to a professional psychologist, and not experiment with your own condition, especially in severe cases.

Beck Scale

A fairly large questionnaire, representing 21 categories of statements of 4-5 pieces in each category. A person who is tested for depression reads a group of statements and chooses what most accurately describes his condition. Each such statement has its own points, and to obtain the test result, the points of the marked statements are added up. The instructions to the questionnaire separately indicate that you need to proceed from how a person felt during the last week – this will give more relevant results.

The fewer points the selected statement has, the lower the severity of the depressive manifestation. Accordingly, the lower the total number of points, the less a person is prone to depression. Questions 1 through 13 determine the psychological manifestations, while statements 14 through 21 are designed to assess how much the condition has managed to affect the human body.

Zung scale

The Zung Scale is a small questionnaire that includes 20 statements. The subject is asked to determine how each statement matches his condition. For this, 4 assessment options are used: rarely, sometimes, often, very often. The results are summarized according to the assessment scheme of each item, and the total amount allows you to judge the status of the respondent.

This depression test takes a little time, and you can pass it yourself without any problems. Its main function is to determine how severe the anxiety states are, so the Zung scale is often used in cases of suspected anxiety depression.

Depression Questionnaire (DDS)

Questionnaire for depressive states – a technique that allows you to distinguish neurotic conditions from those caused by internal causes, as well as determine the general condition of the patient. If you want to take this test yourself, consider that for men and women the questionnaire options are different. The questionnaire for men is 97 points, in the female – 93. The first 59 questions are the same for both sexes.

Passing the test for depression, the subject either agrees with the statements, or puts a mark “no” if it does not coincide with his condition. “Raw” points are converted into T-points according to a special table, and on the basis of T-points, the state of the person who completed the questionnaire is determined.

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (ESDP)

This test for depression was created on the basis of general questionnaires to assess the presence and severity of depression, and is intended to determine postpartum depression. ECPA consists of 10 statements that a woman is invited to rate on a scale from 0 points (categorical disagreement) to 4 (completely agree). In this questionnaire there are no points that relate to the physical condition, therefore, during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, it is most suitable. However, some researchers point out that ESHP does not affect the relationship of mother and child, and this is a significant minus.

Depression Treatment

Depression is a disease, and it can and should be cured by returning to a person the joy of life, activity and the ability to easily perform familiar tasks. Treatment for depression must necessarily be based on diagnostic results, which can sometimes be done independently.

How to get rid of depression

To get rid of depression, first of all, you need to collect your thoughts and think – what was the reason? Perhaps in this state it is difficult for a person to concentrate and think about how to get out of depression, and in this case it is better to take a pen and a sheet of paper. Write down the possible reasons, re-read and ponder what exactly unsettle you.

A lot depends on how severe this psychological disorder is. If in light forms a person fully retains the ability to independently cope with the problem, then severe conditions require the connection of heavy artillery. Turning to a psychologist for help is absolutely normal and much more useful than passivity in front of the grim face of the disease.

Psychotherapy for Depression

Proper and timely psychotherapy is a great opportunity to say goodbye to symptoms such as apathy, constant fatigue, sleep disturbances and any other problems. However, a lack of understanding of what psychotherapy is, along with a reluctance to dedicate an outsider into their personal lives leads to the fact that people do not want to seek help – and this is wrong. Reception of a psychologist will help to resolve the issue of how to get out of depression.

There are three main approaches that are used in this case:

  • Psychodynamic.

It is based on the analysis of a person’s life history and determination of his internal conflicts. When such a problem is found, the psychologist works to resolve the internal conflict, which helps the patient understand how to get rid of depression.

  • Behavioral.

Many behavioral disorders accompany depression, and the goal of the behavioral approach is to eliminate these disorders. A person with a psychologist as if re-learns activity, communication with people and as a result receives a return to a full life.

  • Cognitive.

It is a kind of combination of the two previous approaches and combines work with internal sources of the problem with the elimination of behavioral disorders.

Psychotherapy for depression can take place either individually or in the form of family counseling, as well as special classes in the group. Usually, about 10-30 sessions are required, the duration of therapy depends on the specific condition of the patient.


Antidepressants are essential medications that can help you figure out how to deal with depression. Their composition is designed in such a way as to affect the mood for the better, remove unnecessary anxiety and anxiety, relieve lethargy and eliminate other symptoms that interfere with life. Modern antidepressants are not addictive – they have a positive effect on the brain, helping it return to normal, and then it copes well with its own resources.

It is important to understand that the effect of such drugs cannot be instantaneous, because their effect is gradual. It is very important that the doctor prescribes the appropriate drug, as there are several different groups of antidepressants, the effect of which varies. Self-medication with the wrong type of antidepressant can make the situation worse.

How to get out of depression yourself

Setting a goal and consistently moving towards it is the main principle of self-treatment of depression. Awareness of the problem is the first step to solving it, so carefully consider how to get rid of depression, overcome apathy and regain activity.

The advice “take the problem easier” is commonplace, but helps in many cases. Yes, sometimes a person scans a certain problem over and over in his head and believes that it and only it deserves attention – but it is worth looking from the other side and it turns out that the situation is completely solvable. Sometimes it helps to compare their position with other people who find themselves in the worst circumstances, but were able to get out of them with success.

Often the search for a “mentor”, a “role model” becomes a kind of external incentive in order to get out of bed, tidy yourself, your affairs and your emotional state. But do not forget that the main power is inside the person himself, so it’s better to learn to value yourself instead of stop blaming everything that happens, as is usually the case with depression.

Home Depression Treatment

There are many ways that you can apply at home, and you can start with proper nutrition. It has long been proven that some foods – such as nuts, chocolate, hard cheeses, oily sea fish, as well as bright fruits and vegetables – positively affect our mood, so why not toss a natural and healthy “fuel” into the body?

A full sleep is very important for recovery, so it is better if it is at least 8 hours. Yes, with depression with sleep, many have problems, but if you think about it, you can remove many factors that prevent you from getting a good night’s sleep. Do not watch movies at night, go to bed at the same time, create conditions in which it will be better for you to fall asleep.

Physical activity and fresh air are a good answer to the question of how to get out of depression, so instead of constantly lying on the bed, try to force yourself to get up and move. Even a walk in the park will positively affect your mood.

Many psychotherapists recommend mastering the techniques of meditation. This is what leads to the restoration of internal harmony and relieve tension, but these symptoms very often accompany depression.

Complications of Depression

Depression is not only extremely unpleasant in itself, but can also cause a number of quite tangible physical complications.

  • Patients with cancer, diabetes, as well as those who have certain heart problems, may feel their condition worsen.
  • Physical pain that can affect any part of the body – head, legs, arms, back, stomach. This is not a manifestation of some other ailment, it is a consequence of depression, which is present in half of people with such a disorder.
  • Decreased sexual desire. It affects both men and women, while in men it is possible not only a lack of interest in sex, but also problems with an erection in the future.
  • Various behavioral disorders, including alcoholism, drug use, the desire for isolation, and communication problems. In severe cases, depression can result in suicide.

Depression Prevention

Prevention is easier than cure – this is true for many diseases, including depression. If you take care of your psychological well-being in advance, you can significantly reduce the likelihood of unpleasant symptoms. Some skills will be useful not only as a preventative measure, but also when deciding how to deal with depression if it still catches up with you.

Adult Depression Prevention

The key to success is the ability to manage your emotions, and it is during the depression that they take the person under their negative control. Therefore, the ability to love yourself, to think positively, to enjoy what you have, will be very useful as a preventative measure. Set real goals, and then you will be glad to achieve them, and not be sad that you cannot do the impossible.

Let us rest, do not forget that the morning of the evening is wiser, and even with a fresh mind, even a difficult problem sometimes seems to be completely solved. But you should not too often include alcohol in your holiday program, because it becomes the cause of many troubles. But thanks to sports, you can not only keep yourself in good shape, but also supply your body with endorphins necessary for a good mood. By the way, do not forget about proper nutrition, because not only his health, but also his mood depends on what a person eats.

Communicate more with positive-minded people and try to keep your distance with those who constantly whine and complain. Such characters seem to infect others with their negative attitude and may well convince you that everything is bad, even if in fact it is not.

Prevention of depression in children and adolescents

The family is the main thing for the child, and even for the “prickly” teenager this environment is important, although he is striving to show his full maturity and autonomy with all his might. Therefore, the first thing that protects a child of any age from depression is a good climate in the family, where relationships are built on trust and mutual respect. Children who feel necessary and important for parents are much less susceptible to depressive disorders.

Adequate sleep, the right amount of physical activity and fresh air and proper nutrition are the best prevention of depression. Imagine the mood of a child who is forced to sit at home while his friends enjoy the good weather and play outside! But the amount of time children on the Internet and in front of the TV is better to reduce.

Depression is a psychological disorder that brings significant discomfort to a person’s life, but you can get rid of it, as well as prevent its occurrence. Be attentive to your own psychological state and do not hesitate to seek support from your loved ones if you feel that you are unable to cope on your own.

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