If the work of brain cells is provided by the action of substances-mediators, then the performance of the physiological functions of the body as a whole is controlled by other biologically active substances, which are called hormones. They are produced by the endocrine glands. With the development of depression , changes in hormonal levels are observed. Although, admittedly, sometimes it is not easy to establish the primary source of these changes. Perhaps not in the right breast, and from this suffering psyche, perhaps the other way around – a long response to stress and mood swings have led to changes in the glands is especially typical of the thyroid gland, or rather the axis of “the pituitary gland – the thyroid gland” .
As you know, the hypothalamus is the central organ that controls the production of hormones. It is located in the brain. It was found that in patients with severe depression, the hypothalamus constantly stimulates the pituitary gland, the most important endocrine gland, also found in the brain.
With depression, the release of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland during sleep is disrupted . This is likely to lead to sleep-wake cycle disorders.
The secretion of another hormone , melatonin , which is produced by the pineal gland, a gland located in the diencephalon, is also impaired. This hormone regulates the development of the gonads and the production of hormones, corticosteroids. And corticosteroids produced by the adrenal glands, in turn, regulate mineral metabolism in the body, as well as the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
The role of the hormonal system in the development of depression is confirmed by the fact that thyroid insufficiency is often its cause. The human brain is very sensitive to the deficiency of hormones it produces . It is noted that in certain cases ustoĭchivaya to medication treatment of depression loses its resistance when co-therapy with antidepressants and thyroxine, thyroid hormone.
The adrenal glands are another important “helper” in the onset of depression. This paired organ, whose location is clear from its name, produces a number of hormones, including cortisol , often referred to as the “stress hormone” and DEHA.
Scientists have recorded a distinct increase in the level of cortisol in the blood of people with anxiety. It has also been noticed that as depression comes out of depression, the level of this hormone in the blood in most cases decreases, but it can also be reduced as a result of depletion of the body’s defenses.
In addition, scientists believe that the body of a patient with depression is not able to adequately respond to stress due to disturbances in the endings of nerve cells that are sensitive to cortisol.
Unfavorable indicators in the prognosis of the course of depression are considered to be simultaneously high ̆ blood levels of cortisol and adrenal steroid hormone with the complex name DEHA.
Adrenal dysfunction is common in cases of depression. At this process can influence and genetic factors that contribute to lack of specific nerve okonchaniĭ, and again the same long-term effects of stress. Particularly dangerous are the stresses endured in childhood, when the central mechanisms of regulation of the organs of the hormonal system are formed. Let me emphasize again: deprivation of maternal care for a child, as well as sexual and physical abuse, lead to the emergence of many mental disorders.
During depression, the rhythmic release of sex hormones is disturbed , the menstrual rhythm changes, blood pressure and body temperature fluctuate .
A sharp decrease in the level of progesterone , for example, in the climacteric period, the female sex hormone, in the blood often leads to mental disorders in women, since this significantly increases the sensitivity of specific nerve endings in the brain tissues.
As a “positive summary”, it can be noted that doctors often observe a steady improvement in the condition when restoring the normal functioning of the endocrine system.