Affective syndromes are represented by opposite emotional disorders – mania and depressive states.
Affective syndrome of the depressive variety is characterized by constant bad mood, sadness and longing, which can be accompanied by physical discomfort. Physical discomfort is manifested in a feeling of pressure or heaviness in the chest, difficulty breathing, a feeling of incomplete inspiration. In addition, there is a retardation of reactions, a loss of interest in work, slow movements and even a complete depressive stupor. Depressive conditions can be different in nature. Based on nosological affiliation, psychogenic depressions, endogenous depressive states, manic-depressive psychoses, symptomatic depressions that develop due to somatic diseases are shared.
The gloomy perception of the surrounding reality in a depressed state is characterized by anxiety, low self-esteem. In severe cases, these characteristics turn into delusional states, thoughts of suicide. The most common symptoms of a depressed state are a change in the activity of symptoms during the day. The symptoms are most pronounced in the morning, the condition improves by the end of the day. Among other things, there are sleep disorders, violation of the cycle of menstruation in women, refusal to eat, sudden weight loss.
During the development of an agitated depressive state, mental and motor anxiety is observed. Patients rush about in different directions, make moans, cannot find a place for themselves. If depression is of an adynamic nature, then inhibition of movement and speech, lack of initiative prevail. Hypochondriacal depression manifests itself in restless fears, the patient’s conviction that he is seriously ill. Moreover, complaints of malaise and soreness in the body, as a rule, have no real basis. Depression of asthenic nature is accompanied by lethargy in the body, severe fatigue in the physical and mental plane, impaired concentration and increased irritability. Along with these symptoms, depression and inhibition of thought and movement are noted. In the process of developing a depressive state of a hysterical nature, affective syndromes of a hysterical nature, despair, accompanied by unreasonable sobs, convulsions, tremors, memory disorders, hallucinations predominate. Very often, patients try to fake suicide to achieve their goals.
Affective syndromes of the manic variety are characterized by an abnormally high mood accompanied by unmotivated optimism. The pace of thought is rapid, there is excessive activity in the movements. Mania, as a rule, develop on the basis of endogenous psychosis, diseases of the central nervous system, and poisoning. Patients demonstrate extraordinary joy and happiness, often overestimate their capabilities and strengths, sometimes the situation reaches megalomania. The speed of generating associations is combined with strong distractibility, superficial judgments. There is activity of speech, a desire to expand the scope of professional activity. Often there is an increased susceptibility to criticism, anger. Patients tend to act rashly and pointlessly. Often patients recklessly spend money. There are sleep disorders on the background of general irritability, appetite increases. Often becomes stronger and sexual attraction. In women, the cycle of menstruation is often upset.